List of programmatic advertising definitions

Digital advertising can get overwhelming. That's why we, in collaboration with IAB Canada, put together a glossary of advertising terms to help you navigate the world of AdTech easier.


A/B Split – Refers to a test situation in which a list is split into two halves with every other name being sent one specific creative, and vice versa. This is the process of testing two variations to pin point the most effective one. It could be an ad or a piece of content. Most often used in email marketing with changes to copy or visuals as well as landing pages.

Abandonment – When a user leaves a shopping cart with something in it, prior to completing the transaction.

Above The Fold – The part of an Email message or Webpage that is visible without scrolling. Material in this area is considered more valuable because the reader sees it first. Also refers to a printing term for the top half of a newspaper above the fold. Unlike a newspaper, Email and Webpage fold locations aren’t predictable. Your fold may be affected by the users’ preview pane, monitor-size, monitor resolution, any headers placed by Email programs such as Gmail, Hotmail, etc.

Above The Line – ATL advertising uses ‘traditional’ mediums, which are primarily non-targeted and have a broad reach. ATL usually refers to TV, radio and print, and often adopted to build a brand and inform customers about a product.

Acquisition Cost – In Email marketing, the cost to generate one lead, newsletter subscriber or customer in an individual Email campaign; typically, the total campaign expense divided by the number of leads, subscribers or customers it produced.

Ad Activity – This is an alternative to the click-through rate as a unit to measure the success of an Online ad campaign. Not every click in a Rich Media unit produces a click-through. When a viewer clicks on a Rich Media unit for example, a number of outcomes are possible, including expanding the unit, playing a Video or otherwise interacting with the unit. The call-to- action for a viewer to click-through competes with all other possible forms of interaction within the unit.

Ad Choices Program – or – OBA Self-Regulation – The Ad Choices program is an effort by many of Canada’s largest marketing and advertising trade associations to give consumers more information and choice about online behavioural advertising. The program requires companies to clearly inform consumers about their data collection and use practices and to enable consumers to exercise greater control over the behavioural advertising they encounter. A central element of the Canadian Self-Regulatory Program for Online Behavioural Advertising (also called the Ad Choices program) is the clickable Ad Choices Icon (a blue i triangle), placed on or near online advertisements that links users to information about online behavioural advertising. When the Icon is clicked, the consumer is able to identify the companies involved in serving such ads to them, and see a description of each company’s data collection and use practices. The Icon should also link users to a Choice mechanism they can use to opt out of future online behavioural advertising. Companies who collect or use online behavioural advertising are encouraged to sign-up to the Canadian Ad Choices program.

Ad Copy – The actual text of an advertisement that explains what product or service is being advertised (a media neutral term).

Ad Exchange – A virtual marketplace where participating suppliers auction their impressions to eligible buyers. The ad exchange announces each impression, in real time, and asks buyers if they are interested to buy said impression and at which price.

Ad Impression – 1) An ad which is served to a user’s browser. Ads can be requested by the user’s browser (referred to as pulled ads) or they can be pushed, such as e-mailed ads; 2) a measurement of responses by an ad delivery system to an ad request from the user’s browser, which is filtered from robotic activity and is recorded at a point as late as possible in the process of delivery of the creative material to the user’s browser — therefore closest to the actual opportunity to see by the user. Two methods are used to deliver ad content to the user – a) server-initiated and b) client-initiated. Server- initiated ad counting uses the Online Publisher’s Web content server for making requests, formatting and re-directing content. Client-initiated ad counting relies on the user’s browser to perform these activities.

Ad Interaction – A popular measure of Rich Media campaign performance. The metric places value on interactions within a unit, even if they do not result in a click-through. Interactions are captured when the user does one or more of the following: Clicks an Exit link, Makes the ad display in Full Screen mode, Mouses over the ad.

Ad Interaction Rate – The ratio of Rich Media ad interactions to the number of Rich Media ad impressions displayed.

Ad Interaction Time – The average amount of time, in seconds, that users interact with a Rich Media ad. Multiple interactions with an ad during a single ad view are aggregated.

Ad Request – The request for an advertisement as a direct result of a user’s action, as recorded by the ad server. Ad requests can come directly from the user’s browser or from an intermediate Internet resource, such as a Web content server.

Ad Server – Technology that stores display advertisements, delivers them to website visitors in a way that would maximize the Advertiser’s (or Publisher’s) revenue, monitor campaigns and create reports.

Ad Serving – The delivery of ads by a server to an end user’s computer on which the ads are then displayed by a browser and/or cached. Ad serving is normally performed either by a Web Publisher, or by a third-party ad server. Ads can be embedded in the page or served separately.

Ad Stream – The series of ads displayed by the user during a single visit to a site (also impression stream).

Ad Tag (Publisher) – A script calling an ad from an ad server via an URL. The tag, for organization and accuracy purpose, should contain, at the very least, the following information: page content theme, ad size which should be displayed in this ad slot and a cache busting random number to minimize impression discrepancy.

Advertising Technology (Ad Tech) – General term for a wide range of technology products and services built to service advertising industry.

Ad Verification – A service that confirms if an ad ran only where it was intended to by the Advertiser. Often used to ensure brand safety, so that an ad does not appear in an inappropriate place or site.

Advertising Fraud – This is a type of fraud where ads that are served to people but never actually seen by anyone while still collecting against ad impression.

Advertising Network (Ad Network) – An Online aggregator or broker of advertising inventory for many sites. Ad networks act as sales representatives for the Websites within their networks, whereby ads are bought centrally by media buyers and displayed on multiple Websites that contract with individual Ad Networks, for a share of revenue generated by ads served on their site.

Affiliate Marketing – An agreement between two sites in which one site (the affiliate) agrees to feature content or an ad designed to drive traffic to another site. In return, the affiliate receives a percentage of sales or some other form of compensation generated by that traffic.

Affirmative Consent – An active request by an Online viewer or subscriber to receive advertising or promotional information, newsletters, etc. Generally affirmative consent does not include the following — failing to uncheck a pre- checked box on a Web form, entering a business relationship with an organization without being asked for separate permission to be sent specific types of Email, in other words lack of an ‘opt-out’ mechanism.

Agency Trading Desk (ATD) – A department or arm of an Agency that oversees programmatic buying. Many Agency holding companies have trading desks.

Aggregated Information – Data combined from many individual users that can’t identify anyone personally.

Algorithm – The programming technology that a Search engine uses to deliver results to a query. Search engines may utilize several algorithms in tandem to deliver a page of Search results or keyword-targeted ads.

Alternate Text – A word or phrase that is displayed when a user has image loading disabled in their browser or when a user abandons a page by hitting “stop” in their browser, prior to the transfer of all images. Also appears as “balloon text” when a user lets their mouse rest over an image.

Analytics – A broad term referring to data analysis; used in PPC (Pay-Per-Click) Online advertising for example, to help determine the quality and success rates of specific pay per click advertising campaigns.

Anchor Text – The clickable text part of a hyperlink. The text usually gives visitors or Search engines important information on what the page being linked to is about.

Anonymizer – An intermediary which prevents Websites from seeing a user’s Internet Protocol (IP) address.

Anonymous Information – Facts that don’t identify a person specifically, such as age group and gender.

API – An API (Application Programming Interface) allows a software application to interact with the operating system of another software application.

App – Short for “application.” In social terms, an app may be a mobile or web- based app that enables social functions, e.g. Facebook’s mobile app for iPhone.

Attachment – A text, Video, graphic, PDF or sound file that accompanies an Email message but is not included in the message itself. Attachments are not an ideal way to send Email newsletters, because many ISPs, Email clients and individual Email recipients do not allow attachments, since hackers can use them to deliver viruses and other malicious code.

Attribute – A single piece of information known about a user and stored in a behavioral profile which may be used to match ad content to users. Attributes consist of demographic information (age, gender, geographical location), segment or cluster information (auto enthusiast), and retargeting information (visited Site X two days ago).

Attribution Modelling – A mathematical process for linking marketing activities to outcomes such as online or offline product purchases. Attribution modeling typically analyzes the degree to which different blends of media exposure, across different channels, generate different bottom-line results in order to establish causality and properly credit each media channel for its impact on the final outcome. For example, users exposed to $100K of display media only may generate 1,000 conversions that can be directly attributed to the display campaign, but also generate a measurable lift in searches and in offline sales that lead to further impact.

Audience Activity – Audience activity generally consists of counts of Internet users accessing content and/or advertising through one or more Internet applications such as a browser or a browser equivalent, filtered to remove suspected non-human activity.

Audience Intelligence (AI) – The use of 1st and 3rd party data to determine an Advertiser’s audience.

Audio – The audible file that accompanies ads. Advertising audio should never play without user-initiation.

Audio Postcard – Digital postcard with audio embedded in it.

Audit – Third party validation by qualified auditing firms of server log activity and/or measurement process associated with Internet activity/advertising. Activity Audits validate measurement counts, including the fairness by which a company’s adserving statistics are presented. Process audits validate internal controls associated with measurement. The latter can include testing an organization’s technology, process, and data as it relates to the underlying ad serving system.

Auto Bidding – The opposite of Fixed Bidding in paid Search campaigns. A type of keyword bidding in which an Advertiser sets a maximum bid for a specific keyword, but may pay less for each clickthrough of that keyword. For example, if Advertiser A bid $0.10 on a keyword, but the next highest bid (Advertiser B) on that keyword is $0.05, then Advertiser A will pay only $0.06 for each clickthrough. However, if Advertiser B changes his/her bid from $0.05 to $0.09, then Advertiser A will pay the full $0.10 (Advertiser A’s maximum bid) for each clickthrough.

Autoresponder – Automated Email message-sending capability, such as a welcome message sent to all new subscribers the minute they join a list. May be triggered by joins, unsubscribes, or even all Email sent to a particular mailbox. May be more than a single message: can be a series of date or event-triggered Emails.


Backbone – A central network connecting other networks together.

Bandwidth – 1) the transmission rate of a communications line or system, expressed either as cycles per second/hertz for analog lines, or as bits (bps) or kilobits per second (Kbps) for digital systems; 2) line speed; 3) the amount of information that can be transmitted over communications lines at one time

Bandwidth Competition – A bottleneck, however brief, when two or more files are simultaneously transmitted over a single line. Unless the system is able to prioritize among the files, the effect is to slow delivery of each.

Banner – Also known as “Display ads”, banner advertisements are a form of graphical ads embedded into a Webpage, typically including a combination of static/animated images, text and/or Video, designed to convey a marketing message and/or cause the user to take an action. Banner dimensions are typically defined by width and height, represented in pixels.

Bayesian Filter – An anti-spam program that evaluates header and content of incoming Email messages to determine the probability that it is spam. Bayesian filters assign point values to items that appear frequently in spam, such as the words “money-back guarantee” or “free.” A message that accumulated too many points is either rejected as probable spam or delivered to a junk-mail folder. Also referred to as content-based filter.

Behavioral Targeting (Interest-based Advertising) – A technique used by Publishers and Advertisers to increase the effectiveness of their Online ad campaigns. Behavioral targeting consists of displaying ads to users based on their past browsing behavior within an ad network. Information related to the user’s habits is collected from a cookie dropped by and only accessible by the respective ad network. From the browsing habits of a user, personal content preference profiles can be built ready to be targeted not only on a specific interest based site, but across a whole ad network.

Behavioural Data (BT, Audience Targeting) – Data related to specific users as well as their historical patterns of interaction with websites and advertising content.

Bid (Keyword Bid) – A paid Search campaign term meaning the maximum amount of money that an Advertiser is willing to pay each time a Web searcher clicks on an ad and visits their Website.

Blacklist – A list developed by anyone receiving Email, or processing Email on its way to the recipient, or interested third-parties, that includes domains or IP addresses of any mailers suspected of sending spam. Many companies use blacklists to reject inbound Email, either at the server level or before it reaches the recipient’s In-Box.

Block – A refusal by an ISP or mail server to forward your Email message to the recipient. Many ISPs block Email from IP addresses or domains that have been reported to send spam or viruses or have content that violates Email policy or spam filters.

Blog – A Blog, short for WeBlog, is a type of Website used by individuals, groups or business entities to publish opinions and commentary on various topics. Content can be focused on very niche topics or can cover current events, popular themes, or even take the shape of a personal diary. Blog posts are listed in reverse chronological order and also allow for comments by readers. Posts can be in the form of text, image, Video, or Rich Media formats.

Blog Roll – A list of Blogs on a Blog (usually placed in the sidebar of a Blog page) that reads as a series of recommendations by the writer of other Blogs.

Blogger – Name for the person who is responsible for writing a blog.

Bot – Software that runs automatically without human intervention. Typically, a bot is endowed with the capability to react to different situations it may encounter. Two common types of bots are agents and spiders. Bots are used by companies like Search engines to discover Websites for indexing. This group include chat-bots that interact with people to carry out certain commands or shopping bots that retrieve information on services and goods. Short for robot.

Bot fraud – This type of ad fraud uses bot agents to generate fake ad impressions.

Bounce – This refers to what happens when Emails are returned to the mail server as undeliverable. A message that doesn’t get delivered promptly is said to have bounced. Emails can bounce for more than 30 reasons: The Email address is incorrect or has been closed; the recipient’s mailbox is full, the mail server is down, or the system detects spam or offensive content. See hard bounce and soft bounce.

Bounce Handling – The process of dealing with the Email that has bounced. Bounce handling is important for list maintenance, list integrity and delivery.

Bounce Message – Message sent back to an Email sender reporting the Email could not be delivered and why. Note: Not all bounced Emails result in messages being sent back to the sender. Not all bounce messages are clear or accurate about the reason an Email was bounced.

Bounce Rate – Also known as return rate. Number of hard/soft bounces divided by the number of Emails sent. This is an inexact number because some systems do not report back to the sender clearly or accurately.

Brand Safety – Contextual technology aimed at ensuring advertisement does not display on webpages where its appearance might negatively impact the Advertiser’s brand.

Broadcast – The process of sending the same Email message to multiple recipients.

Bulk Folder – Also known as junk folder. Where many Email clients send messages that appear to be from spammers or contain spam or are from any sender who’s not in the recipient’s address book or contact list. Recipients are generally able to override the system’s settings and direct that Email from a suspect sender be sent directly to the inbox. Alternatively, one can designate individual messages in the bulk folder as “Not Spam” or “Not Junk” or “Safe Sender”.

Bulk Upload – A tool that some PPC (Pay-Per-Click) Search engines offer that allows Advertisers to upload a large number of keywords into their account. In some cases, Advertisers are able to upload complete PPC campaigns, or parts of complete campaigns.

Button – Clickable graphic (potentially an advertisement), that contains certain functionality, such as taking one to another site or executing a program.


Cache – Memory used to temporarily store the most frequently requested Online content/files/pages in order to speed its delivery to the user. Cache can be local (i.e. on a browser) or on a network. In the case of local cache, most computers have both memory (RAM), and disk (hard drive) cache. Today, Web browsers cause virtually all data viewed to be cached on a user’s computer.

Cache Busting – The process by which sites or servers serve content or HTML in such a manner as to minimize or prevent browsers or proxies from serving content from their cache. This forces the user or proxy to fetch a fresh copy for each request. Among other reasons, cache busting is used to provide a more accurate count of the number of requests from users.

Cached Ad Impressions – The delivery of an advertisement to a browser from local cache or a proxy server’s cache. When a user requests a page that contains a cached ad, the ad is obtained from the cache and displayed.

Call To Action – Information which tells the user what action to take on an Online ad.

Campaign – The advertising period in which a given marketing strategy is to be executed.

Capping – Is an act to voluntarily prevent ads from repeatedly displaying. Often referred as frequency capping, one popular way of capping is specifying a maximum of x amount of impressions per “x” amount of hours.

Catch-all – An Email server function that forwards all questionable Email to a single mailbox. The catch-all should be monitored regularly to find misdirected questions, unsubscribes or other genuine live Email.

Catfish – An ad that expands to the width of a Publisher’s Website with the height of 90 pixels. It sticks to the bottom of the page and does not expand. See Rising Stars Slider for an expandable version of this type of ad.

Cell – Aka Test cell or version. A segment of your Email deployment list that receives different message treatment, specifically to see how it responds versus the control (regular treatment). (See A/B split)

Census Based Measurement – Web or Online ad traffic counts derived from cookied browsers by Website servers and ad servers. The measurement organization may utilize algorithms and other data adjustment procedures such as Online or offline studies, to calculate Unique Browsers and Unique Devices. This is distinct from panel-based measurement. (See also Syndicated measurement organization).

Challenge-response System – An Email anti-spam program that requires a human being on the sender’s end to respond to an Emailed ‘challenge’ message before their messages can be delivered to recipients. Senders who answer the challenge successfully are added to an authorization list. Bulk Emailers can work with challenge-response in this manner.

Churn – How many subscribers leave/opt out of an Email mailing list (or how many Email addresses go bad) over a certain length of time, usually expressed as a percentage of the whole list.

Click – An interaction between a website visitor and the browser in which the website visitor uses a device, such as a mouse, to move the cursor (or pointer) to an active area on the screen and then deliberately interacts with that area by clicking a button on their device, triggering an event. In the case of touch-screen devices, the user “clicks” by touching the active area with their finger or a stylus.

Click Fraud – Invalid clicks arising from suspected “click fraud” originate from a user, program or automated agent (e.g., Internet robot or spider) that accesses a URL for the purpose of manipulating click measurement activity or click-based advertising payments, with no intention of legitimately browsing site content, making a purchase or performing any other type of legitimate conversion action. Suspected click fraud can include invalid ad impression activity. Invalid Suspected click fraud should be filtered from legitimate, user-originating click activity through click-control analyses. (See Invalid Clicks).

Click-stream – 1) The electronic path an Online user takes while navigating from page to page within a Website or from site to site, and; 2) a comprehensive body of data describing the sequence of activity between a user’s browser and any other Internet resource, such as a Website or third party ad server.

Click-through – The action of following a hyperlink (or hotlink) within an advertisement or editorial content to another Website or another page or frame within the Website. Ad click-throughs should be tracked and reported as a ‘302 redirect’ at the ad server and robotic activity should be filtered out. (See Clicks, Invalid Clicks, Click Fraud).

Click-through Rate (CTR) – The rate (expressed in a percentage) at which users click on an ad. This is calculated by dividing the total number of clicks by the total number of ad impressions. For example, if an ad is displayed 100 times and is clicked on 2 times, that ad has a click-through rate of 2% (2/100).

Click-through Tracking – When a hyperlink (hotlink) is included in an Email, a click-through occurs when a recipient clicks on the link. Click-through tracking refers to the data collected about each click-through link, such as how many people clicked it, how many clicks resulted in desired actions such as sales, forwards or subscriptions.

Click-within – Click-withins are ads that allow the user to “drill down” while remaining in the advertisement, not leaving the site on which they are residing.

Clicks – 1) Metric which measures the reaction of an Online user to an Internet ad. There are three types of clicks: click-throughs; in-unit clicks; and mouse- overs; 2) the opportunity for a user to download another file by clicking on an advertisement, as recorded by the server; 3) the result of a measurable interaction with an advertisement or key word that links to the Advertiser’s intended Website or another page or frame within the Website; 4) metric which measures the reaction of a user to hot-linked editorial content. (See ad click, click-through and mouse-over).

ClickTAG – The ClickTAG is the tracking code assigned by the Online ad serving network to an individual ad. The ClickTAG allows the network to register where the ad was displayed when it was clicked on. This click-through data is reported to the ad servers so Advertisers may determine the effectiveness of their campaign.

Close X – A creative control that enables a user to close an ad (remove it from view), or to reduce an expanded panel back to its original size.

Co-registration – Arrangement in which companies collecting registration information from users (Email sign-up forms, shopping checkout process, etc.) include a separate box for users to check if they would also like to be added to a specific third-party list.

Collapse – An event where the expanded panel of an expandable ad reduces to its original size, or disappears completely.

Commercial Email – Email whose purpose, as a whole or in part, is to sell or advertise a product or service or to persuade users to perform an act, such as to purchase a product or click to a Website, whose contents are designed to sell, advertise or promote.

Confirmation – An acknowledgment of an Online subscription or information request. “Confirmation” can be either a company statement that the Email address was successfully placed on a list, or a subscriber’s agreement that the subscribe request was genuine and not faked or automatically generated by a third party.

Content – All the material in an Email message (or a Webpage) except for the codes showing the delivery route and return-path information. Includes all words, images and links.

Content Integration – Advertising woven into Online editorial content or placed in a contextual envelope. Also known as “Web advertorial”.

Content Network – A group of Websites that agree to show ads on their sites, collectively served by a 3rd party ad network, in exchange for a share of the revenue generated by those ads.

Contextual Advertising – Advertising that is targeted to a non-Search Webpage based on the page’s content, keywords, or category. Ads in most content networks can be targeted in this manner, whereby ads are matched to keywords extracted from the content. For example, on a Webpage about dog training, the automated ad serving system may display ads for dog collars, dog leashes and pet food. Contextual advertising scans the text of a website for keywords and targets ads based on those keywords. These ads can be text or images. Advertisers can leverage existing keyboard- based paid Search campaigns to access a larger audience.

Contextual Data – Data related to the content and context of the specific webpage where advertisement is run.

Controls – Active elements of an ad that enable a user to control the advertising experience. Examples of common controls include the “Close X” button in an expandable ad or the Play/Pause/Mute buttons in a Video player.

Conversion – When a visitor clicks to a Website through an Online ad, or as the recipient of an Email campaign, and performs a desired action. A conversion could be a monetary transaction, such as a purchase made after clicking a link within the Website. It could also include a voluntary act such as registering at a Website, downloading a white paper, signing up for a Web seminar or opting in to an Email newsletter.

Conversion Rate – The number of visitors expressed as a percentage, who “convert” after visiting a site through an ad or a commercial Email. The definition of conversion varies from site to site according to the Advertiser’s goals. If an ad achieves 50 click-throughs and 4 of the 50 people who clicked on the ad proceed to convert, the conversion rate = 8% (4/50 * 100). Higher conversion rates generally translate into more successful Pay Per Click advertising campaigns.

Cookie – A very small text file (i.e., program code) that is stored on a user’s browser for the purpose of uniquely identifying that browser during audience activity and for authenticating, tracking and maintaining specific information about users. First-party cookies are those left on a computer by a Website that has been visited, while third-party cookies are those left by a domain different than the site being visited, such as an advertising server that has just delivered an ad to a computer, or certain third-party tools used to measure site traffic. Cookies are typically set to expire. There are two types of cookies: persistent cookies and session cookies. Session cookies are temporary and are erased when the browser exits. Persistent cookies remain on the user’s hard drive until the user erases them or until they expire.

Cookie Buster – Software that blocks the placement of cookies on a user’s browser.

Cookie Caching – A process of collecting cookies of various users which can be brought on an ad exchange.

Cookie Deletion – The degree to which users’ clear cookies from their computers, thereby causing servers to deposit new cookies and potentially leading to overstated estimates of unique users when relying on cookie-based server data.

Cookie, First-party – A cookie placed on a website by the owner, such as those on a bank site or other site (Netflix, Amazon) so they recognize users when users return to their sites.

Cookie, Third-party – A cookie placed on a website by a third-party, such as an ad server or data provider. Information from these cookies is collected and can be used to place you in one or more demographic groups, based on your online activity. These cookies can be used to target advertising and manage campaign aspects.

CPA (Cost-Per-Action) – A performance-based advertising model where payment is dependent upon an action that a user performs as a result of the ad. The action could be making a purchase, signing up for a newsletter, or asking for a follow-up call. An Advertiser pays a set fee to the Publisher based on the number of visitors who take action. Many affiliate programs use the CPA model.

CPC (Cost-Per-Click) – (Also called Pay Per Click or PPC). Cost of advertising based on the number of clicks received. A performance-based advertising model where the Advertiser pays a set fee for every click on an ad. The majority of text ads sold by Search engines are billed under the CPC model. (See Pay Per Click).

CPL (Cost-Per-Lead) – A performance-based advertising model where the cost of advertising is determined based on the number of database files (leads) received.

CPM (Cost-Per- Thousand) – An ad model that charges Advertisers every time an ad is displayed to a user, whether the user clicks on the ad or not. The fee is based on every 1,000 ad impressions (“M” is the Roman numeral for 1,000). Most Display ads, such as banners ads, are sold by CPM.

CPO (Cost-Per-Order) – A performance-based advertising model where the cost of advertising is based on the number of orders received. Also called Cost-Per- Transaction.

CPS (Cost-Per-Sale) – The Advertiser’s cost to generate one sale transaction.

CPU Usage % – A guideline for the amount of central processing power used to display advertising content compared to what’s available on an individual’s computer. CPU usage percentage can be measured directly, during the execution of an Online ad. In addition to file size, the complexity of drawings, gradients, slow moving animations and detailed moving elements can affect the number of calculations the CPU must make for each frame.

Crawler – A software program which visits virtually all pages of the Web to create indexes for Search engines. Crawlers ‘read’ text files than graphic files. (See also spider and bot).

Creative – An advertising unit created by an ad designer, in accordance with Publisher specifications and guidelines, for the purpose of communicating a marketing message to that Publisher’s audience. One creative may consist of multiple files in various formats, such as standard images, animation, Video, execution files (.html, .js, etc.), and other files that work together for an interactive experience.

Creative Dimensions – Measured in pixels, the width and height of an ad unit (WxH). The width is always the first dimension listed, followed by the height dimension (i.e. an ad that is 350×200 is 350 pixels wide by 200 pixels high).

CRM – Customer relationship management (CRM) is a broad term that consists of the processes a company uses to track and organize its contacts with current and prospective customers either by phone, fax, mail and e-mail. CRM software is used to support these processes; information about customers and customer interactions can be entered, stored and accessed by employees in different company departments. Typical CRM goals are to improve services provided to customers by measuring the performance of the business against internal benchmarks, and to use customer contact information for targeted marketing.

Cross-campaign Profiling – A method used to understand how Email respondents behave over multiple campaigns.

Cross-device Marketing – Marketing technique that delivers ads to a specific audience across their devices. It uses unique identifiers that link together the actions of an individual across their devices such as laptops, smartphones, TVs, tablets etc. to form a coherent profile of their behavior.

CTR – See Click-through rate.

Customer Acquisition Cost (CAC) – Metric to determine the cost to acquire new customers. Typically calculated by diving the total sales and marketing costs in a certain period of time by the number of newly acquired customers during the same period. Ex. S&M cost was $100,000 last month which added 1000 new customers. CAC is $100 during that period.


Data Management Platform (DMP) – A centralized system for gathering first-party data, integrating with third- party data, and applying this data to one’s advertising strategy. Advanced DMPs offer users the ability to create custom segments, forecast segment volumes, sync segments with other sources, overlay advanced analytics, and are often integrated with or part of DSP platforms.

Dedicated Server – A dedicated server is a type of Internet hosting solely for use by a single customer, account or domain name, where the client leases an entire server; i.e. a computer that only runs one type of server software, and is usually constructed according to the user’s specifications. Dedicated servers are appropriate for users that require lots of disk space or data transfer, as well as sites that are database intensive or have specific software requirements. Example: An Email server used by only one sender. Email usually goes out faster, and the server is more secure.

Deduplication (deduping) – The process of removing identical entries from two or more data sets such as mailing lists. AKA merge/purge.

Delivered Email – Number of Emails sent minus the number of bounces and filtered messages. A highly inexact number because not all receiving ISPs report accurately on which Email didn’t go through and why not.

Delivery Tracking – The process of measuring Email delivery rates by format, ISP or other factors and delivery failures (bounces, invalid address, server and other errors).

Demand Side Platform (DSP) – A DSP is a technology platform through which buyers (Advertisers or Agencies) can plan, target, execute, optimize, and analyze digital media buying programs across 100% of the media plan. Through a DSP, the buyer can set targeting criteria, pricing, frequency, and other criteria governing the purchase of digital ad units. Advanced DSPs will provide additional capabilities to the buyer, including integration of various online and offline data sources, the ability to provision direct media buys (as opposed to just RTB), advanced optimization and decisioning capabilities, and creative tools.

Deploy – The act of sending the Email campaign after testing.

DHTML (Dynamic Hypertext Markup Language) – An extended set of HTML commands which are used by Web designers to create much greater animation and interactivity than HTML.

Digest – A shortened version of an Email newsletter which replaces full-length articles with clickable links to the full article at a Website, often with a brief summary of the contents.

Digital Media – Generally refers to digital advertising inventory and creative. Can include banner ads, video, audio etc.

Directory – Specializes in linking to other Websites and categorizing those links. A Web Directory is not a Search engine, and does not display lists of Webpages based on keywords; instead, it lists Websites by category and subcategory. The categorization is usually based on the whole Website rather than one page or a set of keywords, and sites are often limited to inclusion in only a few categories. Web directories often allow site owners to directly submit their site for inclusion, and have editors review submissions for fitness.

Discrepancy – This refers to the difference in recorded impressions between ad serving platforms which are involved in the process of publishing Online ads. It can be the basis for disputes between Publishers and ad serving agencies, in which Publisher’s own server metrics tend to be higher. The discrepancy tolerance threshold is 10%. Factors such as different impression calculation methods influence the level of reported discrepancy.

Display Advertising – A form of Online advertising where an Advertiser ‘s message is shown on a destination Webpage in a graphical format.

Digital Out-Of-Home advertising (DOOH) – Digital ads that are marketed to consumers when they are “on the go”, such as in public transit, in commercial locations, waiting areas, public roads etc.

Double Opt-in – A process that requires new list or survey panel joiners to take an action (such as clicking on an Email or ad embedded link to a personal confirmation page) in order to confirm that they do want to be on the list or panel. Sometimes interpreted incorrectly by some Email broadcast vendors to mean a new subscriber who does not opt-out of or bounce a welcome message.

Dynamic Ad Insertion – The process by which an Online ad is inserted into a Webpage in response to a user’s request. Dynamic ad placement allows alteration of specific ads placed on a Webpage based on any data available to the placement program. At its simplest, dynamic ad placement allows for multiple ads to be rotated through one or more spaces. In more sophisticated examples, the ad placement could be affected by demographic data or usage history for the current user.

Dynamic Content – Email-newsletter content that changes from one recipient to the next according to a set of predetermined rules or variables, usually according to preferences the user sets when opting in to messages from a sender. Dynamic content can reflect past purchases, current interests or where the recipient lives.

Dynamic CPM (dCPM) – The approach to winning ad traffic by increasing CPM bid by the necessary minimum in real time to outbid competition.

Dynamic Pricing – The purchase price for an ad impression that is determined via a real-time auction rather than a predetermined fixed rate.

E-mail Bounce – An e-mail that cannot be delivered to the mailbox provider and is sent back to the e-mail Service Provider that deployed it. A bounce is classified as either hard or soft. Hard bounces are the failed delivery of e-mail due to a permanent reason, such as a non-existent address. Soft bounces are the failed delivery of e-mail due to a temporary issue, such as a full inbox or an unavailable ISP server.

E-mail Campaign – An advertising campaign distributed via e-mail.

Editorial Review – A process in which Online Advertiser listings are checked to ensure relevancy. Not all PPC Search Engines review listings.

Email Filter – A software tool that categorizes, sorts or blocks incoming Email, based either on the sender, the Email header or message content. Filters may be applied at the recipient’s level, at the Email client, the ISP or a combination.

Email Harvesting – Automated process in which a robot program searches Webpages or other Internet destinations for Email addresses. The program collects the addresses into a database, which frequently gets resold to spammers or unethical bulk mailers.

Email Newsletter – Content distributed to subscribers by Email, on a regular schedule. Content is seen as valued editorial in and of itself rather than primarily a commercial message with a sales offer.

Email Vendor – Another name for an Email broadcast service provider, a company that deploys bulk (volume) Email on behalf of its clients. Also Email service provider (ESP).

Embedding – Posting photos or video content within social media that is hosted by another network, i.e. YouTube. The scrambling of digital information so that it is unreadable without the use of digital keys.

Engagement – A desired interaction by a user to a brand. This could be “likes” on a Facebook fan page, retweets of a tweet sent by a brand, comments on a blog, or time spent on a social game.

Event Triggered Email – Pre-programmed messages sent automatically based on an event such as a date or anniversary.

Expandable Ads & Banners – Rich Media ads that can be enlarged to dimensions beyond the initial dimensions of the placement they fill on the Webpage. The user initiates expanding events, sometimes after the ad initially expands briefly on its own to catch the user’s attention.

Expandable Dimensions – The secondary dimension of an expanding ad unit, after the ad is expanded (E.g. 728×360). Initial dimensions are fit to the dimension of the placement (E.g. 728 x 90). Then, either by auto-play or by user interaction, the ad unit expands to its secondary dimension.

Eyeballs – Colloquial reference to the number of people who view, or “lay their eyes on,” a certain Online advertisement.

Ezine – An Online magazine shares some features with a Blog and also with Online newspapers, but can usually be distinguished by its approach to editorial control.


False Positive – A legitimate Email message mistakenly rejected or filtered as spam, either by an ISP or a recipient’s anti-spam program. The more stringent is an anti-spam program, the higher the false-positive rate.

First Look – “First look” is a tactic widely offered by sellers who offer prioritized access to select Advertisers within an open market environment. Instead of the winning impression going to the highest bid, “first look” affords first right of refusal for an impression within an exchange based on a pre- negotiated floor or fixed price. If the buyer bids, they are guaranteed to win the impression. This privilege is typically granted in return for a commitment.

First-Party Data – The data that comes directly from your audience and customers. The data that is collected by your organization. Ex. Data that you collect from your website. This type of data is not widely available for sharing with other organizations.

Fixed Bidding – The opposite of Auto Bidding. A type of keyword bidding in paid Search campaigns, payment exactly matches the original bid for each click- through. For example, if you bid $0.10 on a keyword, you will pay $0.10 for each click-through, regardless of other Advertiser bids. See “Auto Bidding” for further explanation.

Floating Ads – Online ad or ads that appear within the main browser window, on top of the Webpage’s normal content, thereby appearing to “float” over the top of the page.

Fold – An ad or content that is viewable as soon as the Webpage appears. One does not have to scroll down (or sideways) to see it. Since screen resolution can affect what is immediately viewable, it is beneficial to know whether the site’s audience tends to set its resolution at 640 x 480 pixels or at 800 x 600 (or higher).

Footer – An area at the end of an Email message or newsletter that contains information that doesn’t change from one edition to the next, such as contact information, the deploying company’s postal address or the Email address the recipient used to subscribe to mailings. Some software programs can be set to place this information automatically.

Frequency – The number of times an ad is delivered to the same browser in a single session or time period. A site can use cookies in order to manage (cap) the extent of ad frequency.

Frequency Capping – The ability to set a limit on the number of times an Advertiser exposes a user to their advertising within a fixed time period.

Frequency Distribution – The number or proportion of individuals in an advertising target audience that have the opportunity-to-see an Online ad or advertising schedule a certain number of times. E.g. 1 time, 2 times, 3 times, 3 or more times (3+) etc.


Gamification – Applying gaming principles to non-games. For example, Nike encourages its consumers to track their runs and share that data to Facebook. This action earns points for the consumer, which they can redeem for Nike product.

General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) – Data protection and privacy regulation for citizens of European Union and the European Economic Area. It requires all organizations collecting and/or processing consumers’ data in this region to follow specific provisions and standards to ensure they get consent from the consumers to use their data.

Geo-targeting – Geo-targeting allows Advertisers to specify where ads will or will not be shown, based on the visitor’s or searcher’s location, enabling more localized and personalized results.

Goodbye Message – An Email message sent automatically to a list member who unsubscribes, acknowledging the request. Should include an option to re-subscribe in case the unsubscribe was requested accidentally.


Hard Bounce – Email Message sent to an invalid, closed or nonexistent Email account.

Hashtag – Use of the hash or pound symbol # used in front of a tag or keyword. Often used on Twitter to help people find discussion on the same topic.

Hit – When users access a Website, their computer sends a request to the site’s server to begin downloading a page. Each element of a requested page (including graphics, text, interactive items) is recorded by the site’s Web server log file as a “hit.” If a page containing two graphics is accessed by a user, those hits will be recorded once for the page itself and once for each of the graphics. Webmasters use hits to measure their servers’ workload. Because page designs and visit patterns vary from site to site, the number of hits bears no relationship to the number of pages downloaded, and is therefore a poor guide for traffic measurement. The proper measures for Website performance include unique users, pageviews, time spent Online, etc.

Home Page – The page designated as the main point of entry of a Website (or main page) or the starting point when a browser first connects to the Internet. Typically, it welcomes you and introduces the purpose of the site, or the organization sponsoring it, and then provides links to other pages within the site.

Host – Also called server; a computer that provides client stations with access to files and printers as shared resources to a computer network. (See Server).

Hot Spot – A “hot spot” is an area of an ad unit, which when rolled-over/rolled-on by the user’s cursor, such rollover triggers an event (i.e. expand ad). The trigger event should not occur unless the user’s cursor rests in the hotspot zone for at least 1-second. Hotspots should never initiate audio (audio should only be initiated by a click). When hotspots are used, the trigger event should stop immediately upon the user’s cursor leaving the hotspot zone (i.e. ad collapses), and the ad unit should return to its original state.

Household Data – Household data is shared data across all people living in the same home. The data is collected from devices like TVs and radio. Traditional TV ads have been bought based on household audience data. Even though this type of data is less revealing of individual behaviours, it provides marketers a level of scale.

House List – The list of Email addresses an organization develops on its own.

Hybrid Pricing – Pricing model which is based on a combination of a CPM pricing model and a performance-based pricing model. (See CPM, Performance pricing model).


Image Map – A GIF or JPEG image with more than one linking hyperlink. Each hyperlink or hot spot can lead to a different destination page.

Impression – A measurement of responses from a Web server to a page request from the user browser, which is filtered from robotic activity and error codes, and is recorded at a point as close as possible to opportunity to see the page by the user. If an ad is displayed 1,000 times, that is considered to be 1,000 impressions.

In-banner Video – A Video delivered as part of (inside of) the display ad creative for a given placement rather than initiating the use of a Video player.

Inbound Link – An inbound link is a hyperlink to a particular Webpage from an outside site, bringing traffic to that Webpage. Inbound links are an important element that most Search engine algorithms use to measure the popularity of a Webpage.

Independent Trading Desk (ITD) – A third party company that licenses and supports DSP technology to act as a trading desk for Advertisers/Agencies.

Influencers – A person or group of people who have a strong influential presence on social media and who are often targeted by marketers as social media brand advocates.

Initial Dimension – The original width and height (in pixels) ((E.g. 728×90) of an expanding ad, typically matched to the placement dimensions. Expanding ads are designed to expand to a dimension larger than the initial dimension (E.g. 728×360).

Initial File Load – The size of the creative file(s) for an ad, measured in KB or MB, that load along with (inline with) the Webpage files that load when a user first initiates a page load. The initial file load size of an ad is limited in order to preserve the page load performance and thus the user’s web browsing experience.

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) – High-speed dial-up connections to the Internet over ordinary copper phone wires. DSL has in large part replaced ISDN. (See DSL).

Interactive Advertising – Online (including Display (banners), Sponsorship, Email, Search, Video, Classified, Social Media Marketing, Etc.); Mobile (SMS, MMS, Applications, Content, Etc.), and Gaming.

Interstitial – A full page ad that is shown between pages online, or within an application on a mobile device.

Invalid Clicks – Invalid Clicks can arise from numerous situations based on internal quality guidelines of either or both the Publisher or Publisher’s Agent. Additionally, the Advertiser or Advertiser’s Agent can make assessments of Click validity and bring these assessments to the attention of the Publisher or Publisher’s Agent. In general, Click activity determined to be invalid should be removed from counts to arrive at valid click activity. Invalid Clicks arising from suspected “click fraud” are a sub-component of Invalid Clicks. (See Click Fraud).

Invisible Web – A term that refers to the vast amount of information on the Web that isn’t indexed by Search engines.

Jump Page Ad – Microsite which is reached via click-through from button or banner ad. The jump page itself can list several topics, which are linked to either the Advertiser’s site or the Publisher’s site.


Keyword – A word or phrase entered into a Search engine in an effort to get the Search engine to return matching and relevant results. The keyword can also be purchased by Advertisers in order to direct the hyperlink opportunity to the Advertiser’s site or to serve an ad related to the user’s search. For example, possible keywords for a site selling apples would be “apple”, “red”. apple” and “green apple’’.

Keyword Search Revenues – Fees that Advertisers pay to retrieve the hyperlink opportunity to the Advertiser’s site or to serve an ad related to the user’s search.

KPI – Key Performance Indicator. Used to determine benchmarks for social media strategy success or failure.


Landing Page – A Webpage viewed after clicking on a link within an Email or an ad. Also may be called a microsite, splash page, bounce page, or click page.

Link – An electronic connection between two Websites. Also called “hotlink” or “hyperlink.”

Link Bait – Editorial content, often sensational in nature, posted on a Webpage and submitted to Social Media sites in hopes of building inbound links from other sites.

Link Building – The process of getting quality Websites to link to your Websites, in order to improve Search engine rankings. Link building techniques can include buying links, reciprocal linking or entering barter arrangements.

Linkrot – What happens when links go bad over time, either because a Website has shut down or a site has stopped supporting a unique landing page provided in an Email promotion.

List – The list of Email addresses to which a message is sent. Can be either a house list or a third-party list.

List Fatigue – A condition producing diminishing returns from a mailing list whose members are sent too many offers, or too many of the same offers, in too short a period of time.

List Hygiene – The act of maintaining a list so that hard bounces and unsubscribed names are removed from mailings. Some list owners use an Email change-of-address service to update old or abandoned Email addresses as part of this process.

List Management – How an Email list is set up, administered and maintained. The list manager has daily responsibility over list operation, including processing subscribes and unsubscribes, bounce management, list hygiene, etc. The list manager can be the same as the database manager but is not always the same person as the list owner. (See list owner).

List Owner – The organization or individual who has gathered a list of Email addresses. Ownership does not necessarily imply “with permission”.

List Rental – The process in which a Publisher or Advertiser pays a list owner to send its messages to that (third party) list. Usually involves the list owner sending the message’s on the Advertiser’s behalf.

List Sale – The actual purchase of a mailing list along with the rights to mail to it directly. Permission can only be “sold” if the subsequent mailings continue to match the frequency, brand name, content, and “from” of the past owner’s mailings.

Long Tail Publishers – Small, sub-scale ad Publishers such as blogs to niche commercial sites.

Look-alikes / Audience Modelling – Potential customers modeled after an Advertiser’s 1st party data (usually data from their customers who visit and make purchases from their websites). Attributes of the Advertiser’s customers are matched against a larger audience, creating a pool of highly targetable and ‘pre-qualified’ users. Some companies refer to this also as ‘pre-targeting’.

Makegoods – Additional ad impressions which are negotiated in order to compensate an Advertiser for the shortfall of Online ads delivered versus the commitments outlined in the approved insertion order.

Mashup – Merging of two or more pieces of content together to create a new piece of media.

Media Buying – Process of purchasing advertising space.

Media Planning – Process of strategically working out where advertising should be delivered.

Meme – A piece of media, often a photo and copy together, that inspire copycat media which often go viral.

Micro Blogging – Publishing very brief, spontaneous posts to a public Website, usually via a mobile device or wirelessly connected laptop (e.g. on Twitter).

Microsites – Multi-page ads accessed via click-through from initial ad. User stays on the Publisher’s Website, but has access to more information from the Advertiser than a standard ad format allows.

Mid-roll – Form of Online Video ad placement where the ad is played during a break in the middle of the content Video. (See Pre-roll and Post-roll).

Minimum Bid – The lowest amount of money that a Pay Per Click Search Engine allows Advertisers to bid for a certain keyword. This amount is usually $0.01, $0.05, $0.10, $0.20, or $0.50.

Mobile Marketing – Focuses on reaching a specific audience on mobile devices. Often includes SMS and in-app ad placements etc.

Moderation – The act of selecting media files for publication or not, based on rules and guidelines set out by the Publisher. Content can be pre-moderated, meaning they’re reviewed before they’re published, or post-moderated, meaning the media is published immediately after a user posts it, but a moderator may take the media down later if they find it violates their rules. Moderation can be done by people or by software.

Mouse-off – The act of a user moving the cursor away (off) from the hot spot of an ad. Mouse-off by a user may trigger an event, such as collapsing an expanding panel or stopping any animation in progress.

Mouse-over – The process by which a user places his/her mouse over a media object, without clicking. The mouse may need to remain still for a specified amount of time to initiate some actions like an expanding ad.

Multi-part MIME – Also known (confusingly) as an “Email sniffer”, a Message format which includes both an HTML and a text-only version in the same message. Most (but not all) Email clients receiving messages in this format will automatically display the version the user’s system is set to show. Systems that can’t show HTML should show the text version instead.

Native Advertising – Paid for marketing content that is designed to fit into the media experience where it is placed. Created in a way to blur the line between organic and paid content.

Newsgroup – An electronic bulletin board devoted to talking about a specific topic and open to everybody. Only a handful of newsgroups permit the posting of advertising.

Non-Remnant Inventory – Inventory sold directly by a Publisher to an advertiser. Remnant inventory is usually sold by a third party.

Nth Name – The act of segmenting an Email list for a test in which names are pulled from the main list for the test cell by number — such as every 5th name on the list. (See also A/B split).


OBA – Acronym for Online Behavioral Advertising. The collection of data from a particular computer or device regarding Web viewing behaviors over time and across non-affiliate Websites for the purpose of using such data to predict user preferences or interests to deliver advertising to that computer or device based on the preferences or interests inferred from such Web viewing behaviors. Online Behavioral Advertising does not include the activities of First Parties, Ad Delivery or Ad Reporting, or contextual advertising (i.e. advertising based on the content of the Web page being visited, a consumer’s current visit to a Web page, or a search query).

Omnichannel – Omnichannel marketing campaigns means creating a single, orchestrated user experience across every element and touchpoint of the customer journey.

Open Rate – The number of HTML message recipients who opened your Email, usually as a percentage of the total number of Emails sent. The open rate is considered a key metric for judging an Email campaign’s success, but it has several problems. The rate indicates only the number of Emails opened from the total amount sent, not just those that were actually delivered. Opens also can’t be calculated on text Emails. (See Preview Pane).

Opt-in – Refers to an individual giving a company permission to use data collected from or about the individual for a particular reason, such as to market the company’s products and services. (See Permission Marketing).

Opt-in E-mail – Lists of Internet users who have voluntarily signed up to receive commercial e-mail about topics of interest.

Opt-out – When a company states that it plans to market its products and services to an individual unless the individual asks to be removed from the company’s mailing list.

Organic Search Results – Unpaid Search engine listings, as distinct from paid Search engine placements, or pay per click ads.

Overlay – An ad unit that displays over the Webpage content briefly when initiated.

Over-the-top Media – Refers to any video content delivered over the internet, outside of managed network. Over-the-top often used interchangeably with “streaming”.

Out Of Home Advertising (OOH) – Often referred as outdoor advertising, is advertising that reaches the consumers while they are outside of their homes. OOH can include billboard advertising, advertising on public transport, roads etc.


Page Impression – A measurement of responses from a Web server to a page request from the user’s browser, which is filtered from robotic activity and error codes, and is recorded at a point as close as possible to the opportunity to see the page by the user. (See for ad campaign measurement guidelines).

Page Request – The opportunity for an HTML document to appear on a browser window as a direct result of a user’s interaction with a Website.

Pageview – A page view (PV) or page impression is a request to load a single page of an Internet site. On the Web, a page request would result from a Web surfer clicking on a link on another HTML page pointing to the page in question.

Paid Inclusion – A service that guarantees (for a fee) that a Website’s pages will be indexed. The fee guarantees inclusion within the Search engine’s results (and also that the Search engine will spider the pages often) for a set period of time, usually one year. Paid inclusion guarantees that a Website will be included in Search results, but does not guarantee top placement within the Search results.

Pay Per Click Search Engine (PPCSE) – A type of Search engine in which search results are determined by Advertiser bids. Generally speaking, the Advertiser that bids the highest amount on a specific keyword will appear as the No. 1 search result for that specific keyword.

Pay-per-Click (PPC/CPC)) – Also called Cost per Click (CPC). A performance-based Online advertising pricing model in which Advertisers pay agencies and/or media companies on a cost per click (CPC) basis, according to the number of visitors that click on an Online ad or e-mail message. PPC advertising is different than “traditional” Online advertising, where Advertisers pay according to how many times their ad is displayed (see CPM). With Pay Per Click Advertising, an ad can be displayed many times, but the Advertiser only pays when a Web user actually clicks on the ad. (See Cost per click – CPC).

Pay-per-Lead (PPL/CPL) – A performance-based advertising pricing model in which Advertisers pay for each “sales lead” generated. For example, an Advertiser might pay for every visitor that clicked on an ad or site and successfully completed a form. (See CPL).

Pay-per-Sale (PPS/CPS) – A performance-based advertising pricing model in which Advertisers pay agencies and/or media companies based on how many sales transactions were generated as a direct result of the ad. (See CPS).

Peel Over – An ad, when expanded, which mimics the behavior of a paper top corner being peeled.

Performance Pricing Model – An advertising model in which Advertisers pay based on a set of agreed upon performance criteria, such as a percentage of Online revenues or delivery of new sales leads. (See CPA, CPC, CPL, CPO, CPS).

Permission – The implicit approval given when a person actively requests to have their own Email address added to a list.

Permission Marketing – When an individual has given a company permission to market its products and services to the individual. (See opt-in).

Persistent Cookie – A cookie which remains on the user’s hard drive until the user erases it.

Personalization – A targeting method in which an Email message appears to have been created only for a single recipient. Personalization techniques include adding the recipient’s name in the subject line or message body, or the message offer reflects a purchasing, link clicking, or transaction history.

Phishing – A form of identity theft in which a scammer uses an authentic-looking Email to trick recipients into giving out sensitive personal information, such as credit-card or bank account numbers, Social Security numbers and other data.

Podcast – A podcast is a series of digital media files, usually digital, audio, or Video, that is made available for download via Web syndication.

Polite File Load – Withholding a portion of the total ad creative file size (besides any initial file load size) from loading on a page until Publisher content has loaded.

Pop-under Ad – Ad that appears in a separate window beneath an open window. Pop- under ads are concealed until the top window is closed, moved, resized or minimized.

Pop-up Ad – Any advertising experience where visiting a website in an initial browser window initiates a secondary browser window to deliver an ad impression directly above the initial browser window.

Pop-up Transitional – Initiates play in a separate ad window during the transition between content pages. Continues while content is simultaneously being rendered. Depending primarily on line-speed, play of a transitional ad may finish before or after content rendering is completed.

Post Click – Actions performed by a user on an Advertiser site after being redirected there from clicking an ad. This is a technique used to evaluate the influence of the ad on customer behavior on the Advertiser Website.

Post-roll – Form of Online Video ad placement where the advertisement is played after the content Video plays. (See Pre-roll and Mid-roll).

PPC – (See Pay per Click).

PPC Management – A service that helps pay per click Advertisers manage their various PPC advertising campaigns across multiple PPC search engines.

Pre-roll – Form of Online Video ad placement where the advertisement is played before the content Video plays. (See Post-roll and Mid-roll).

Preferences – Options Email users can set to determine how and which messages they want to receive from you. The more preferences a user can specify, the more likely you’ll send relevant Email.

Preview Pane – The window in an Email client that allows the user to scan message content without actually clicking on the message. (See Open rate).

Privacy Policy – A clear description of how your company uses the Email addresses and other information it gathers via opt-in requests for newsletters, company information, or third-party offers or other functions. If you rent, sell or exchange your list to anyone outside your company, or if you add Email addresses to opt-out messages, you should state so in the privacy policy.

Private Exchange – A virtual marketplace operated by sellers to represent their high value/premium inventory, providing programmatic access to select buyers (via a DSP) who agree to transact based on pre-negotiated terms (e.g. flight dates, floor prices, auction types, budgets, etc.). True private exchanges offer access to inventory that is not otherwise available within the open market.

Profiling – The practice of tracking information about consumers’ interests by monitoring their movements Online. This can be done without using any personal information, but simply by analyzing the content, URL’s, and other information about a user’s browsing path/click-stream.

Programmatic Advertising – Technology developed to help brands and agencies to optimize their media in real time across their marketing channels. It aims for efficiency by automating media buying through ad exchanges and demand-side platforms. Programmatic advertising automates the transactions and processes involved with buying and dynamically placing digital ads.

Programmatic Direct – Allows media buyers to get access to specified inventory that is not necessarily available from an open marketplace or supply side platforms.

Progressive Load Video – A distribution method for serving Video files in which the Video file downloads progressively into the cache of a user’s computer, much the same way images and other content elements are downloaded.


Qualified Hits – Hits to a Web server that delivers information to a user. Qualified hits exclude error messages, redirects and requests by computer programs (as opposed to end users).

Quality Score – A score assigned by search engines that is calculated by measuring an ad’s click-through rate, analyzing the relevance of the landing page, and other factors like historical keyword performance to determine the quality of a site, rewarding those of higher quality with top placement and lower bid requirements. All of the major search engines now use some form of quality score in their search ad algorithm.

Query – An Online request for information, usually to a search engine.

Queue – Where an Email message goes after you send it but before the list owner approves it or before the list server gets around to sending it. Some list software allows you to queue a message and then set a time to send it automatically, either during a quiet period on the server or at a time when human approval isn’t available.


Rate Card – The list of advertising prices and products and packages offered by a media company.

Re-direct – When used in reference to Online advertising, one server assigning an ad-serving or ad-targeting function to another server, often operated by a third company. For instance, a Web Publisher’s ad management server might re-direct to a third-party hired by an Advertiser to distribute its ads to target customers; and then another re-direct to a “Rich Media” provider might also occur if streaming Video were involved before the ad is finally delivered to the consumer. In some cases, the process of re- directs can produce latency. (See ad serving).

Reach – 1) The foundation for the initiation of Unique Cookie or Unique User counting is a measurable incidence of audience activity, unduplicated for that cookie or that user, respectively, and related to the applicable Web- site, property or application, such as a “widget”, during the reporting period. This activity should be based on the “client-initiated” concept of counting, whereby audience activity (the request or transaction from the user) originates from a user’s browser (or browser equivalent) – i.e., the “client” – and can consist of graphics or content requests, ad requests or search transactions. Activity that is associated with or arising from the use of a standalone executable application should only be counted towards Online audience reach if the application is being used to access content or messaging on the Internet and it is attributable to direct human interaction.

Real Time – Events that happen in real time are happening virtually at that particular moment. When one chats in a chat room, or sends an instant message, one is interacting in real time since it is immediate. (See Instant Messaging).

Real Time Bidding (RTB) – A data-driven programmatic buying model allowing Advertisers or their Agencies to bid on digital media (display, video, mobile, social, etc.) in real-time, at the impression level.

Real Time Search – Search engine results which include media that is being generated on social networks at the point in time that the search was conducted.

Referral Fees – Fees paid by Advertisers for delivering a qualified sales lead or purchase inquiry.

Remnant Inventory – Inventory that and Publisher is unable to sell directly which is turned over to a third-party and sold at a discounted rate. (Also see non-remnant inventory)

Repeat Visitor – Unique visitor who has accessed a Website more than once over a specific time period.

Reputation Monitoring – Analysis of social media conversations on a particular topic or brand which reveals the overall sentiment that users are expressing about that topic or brand.

Retargeting – Re-messaging various messages to a collective pool of participants based on the pools the buyer/client creates; usually involves collecting data by pixelating the Advertiser’s website.

Retraction – An event programmed into an expandable ad that causes the ad to be reduced to its original dimensions (i.e. the expanded portion of the ad retracts).

Return On Investment (ROI) – The percentage of profit that results from a marketing or advertising campaign. A positive ROI occurs when the amount of money received exceeds total campaign-related expenditures. In general, and in terms of PPC advertising, the formula would be net profit divided by investment: (Revenue – Expenses) / Expenses.

Return Visits – The average number of times a user returns to a site over a specific time period.

Revenue Sharing – The business agreement by which a site divides its revenue with an ad network.

Rich Media – Advertisements with which users can interact (as opposed to solely animation) in a Webpage format. These advertisements can be used either singularly or in combination with various technologies including Video, sound, or Flash, and with programming languages such as Java, Javascript, and DHTML. They can be deployed via standard Web and wireless applications including e-mail, static (e.g. html) and dynamic (e.g. asp) Webpages, banners, buttons, transitionals and various over-the- page units such as floating ads, page take-overs, and tear-backs.

ROAS (Return On Ad Spend) – (See Return on Investment).

ROI – (See Return On Investment)

Rollover – The willful pause of the user’s cursor on the target portion of the creative (the “hot spot”), such pause lasting at least one second in duration, before an action may be initiated by the ad (i.e. trigger an expand event, etc.). This one-second pause/delay requirement prevents unwanted, user- initiated actions and false reporting of user engagement.

RON (Run-Of-Network) – The scheduling of Internet advertising whereby an ad network positions ads across the sites it represents at its own discretion, according to available inventory. The Advertiser usually forgoes premium positioning in exchange for more advertising weight at a lower CPM.

ROS (Run-Of-Site) – The scheduling of Internet advertising whereby ads run across an entire site, often at a lower cost to the Advertiser than the purchase of specific site sub-sections.

RTB – Bidder – Connects to one or more “pipes” and evaluates every impression that’s announced. The real-time bidder is responsible for making the best inventory acquisition decisions possible, on behalf of the Advertiser.

RTB – Pipe (API) – Provides a server-side connection into an inventory source and pushes impressions, in real time, to eligible buyers. It announces impressions as they are made available to buy.

Search Engine Marketing (SEM) – A form of Internet marketing that seeks to promote Websites by increasing their visibility in search engine result pages through the use of paid placement, contextual advertising, and paid inclusion.

Search Engine Optimization (SEO) – The process of improving the volume or quality of traffic to a Website from search engines via “natural” (“organic” or “algorithmic”) search results. Typically, the earlier a site appears in the search results list, the more visitors it will receive from the search engine. SEO may target different kinds of search, including image search, local search, and industry-specific vertical search engines. Optimizing a Website primarily involves editing its content and HTML coding to both increase its relevance to specific keywords and to remove barriers to the indexing activities of search engines.

Search Engine Results Pages (SERPs) – The page searchers see after they’ve entered their query into the search box. This page lists several Webpages related to the searcher’s query, sorted by relevance. Increasingly, search engines are returning blended search results, which include images, Videos, and results from specialty databases on their SERPs.

Second Price Auction – The winner of the bid pays the price of the 2nd highest bidder + 1 cent (also known as a Vickery auction).

Seed Emails – Email addresses placed on a list (sometimes secretly) to determine what messages are sent to the list and/or to track delivery rate and/or visible appearance of delivered messages. Seeds may also be placed on Websites and elsewhere on the Internet to track spammers’ harvesting activities.

Segment – The ability to slice a list into specific pieces determined by various attributes, such as open history or name source.

Selective Unsubscribe – An unsubscribe mechanism that allows a consumer to selectively determine which Email newsletters they wish to continue receiving while discontinuing the sending of others.

Sell-through Rate – The percentage of ad inventory sold as opposed to traded or bartered in an ad network.

SEM – (See Search Engine Marketing).

Sender Policy Framework (SPF) – A protocol used to eliminate Email forgeries. A line of code called an SPF record is placed in a sender’s Domain Name Server information. The incoming mail server can verify a sender by reading the SPF record before allowing a message through.

Sentiment – A measure to determine users’ emotional relationship to a social media post or social media presence. Defined further as positive, negative or neutral.

SEO – (See Search Engine Optimization).

Server Centric Measurement – Audience measurement derived from server logs.

Session – 1) Sometimes also called a “visit”. A single continuous set of activity attributable to a cookied browser or user (if registration-based or a panel participant) resulting in one or more pulled text and/or graphics downloads from a site. Inactivity rules that result in the termination of a visit (as disclosed by the measurement organization) should include the time thresholds triggering the inactivity rules, as well as the amount of Time Spent to be credited. (See Visit).

Session Cookies – Cookies which are loaded into a computer’s RAM, and only work during that browser session. When the browser exits, these cookies are erased. They are “temporary cookies”, and no cookie is written to a user’s hard drive. (See cookie).

Set-Top Box – An electronic device that sits on top of one’s TV set and allows it to connect to the Internet, game systems, or cable systems.

Shop Bot – An Online price comparison service (also known as shopping comparison or price engine) allows individuals to see different lists of prices for specific products. Most price comparison services do not sell products themselves, but source prices from retailers from whom users can buy.

Site Structure – Also referred to as site architecture. The organisation of content within a site within contextually relevant groups that is usually reflected in the layout of the sites navigation. A well-organized Website is one that makes it easy and intuitive for visitors to find what they want. The easier it is to use, the longer users will stay at the site, and the more they’ll see of it. Good Website structure also makes it easy for you to grow your site logically.

Slotting Fee – A fee charged to Advertisers by media companies to get premium positioning on their site, category exclusivity or some other special treatment. It is similar to slotting allowances charged by retailers.

Sniffer – Software that detects capabilities of the user’s browser looking for such things as Java capabilities, plug-ins, screen resolution, and bandwidth.

Social Action – An action taken by a user on a social network, such as liking a Facebook fan page, sharing a piece of content to a social network or retweeting a tweet by another Twitter user.

Social Bookmarking – A means for social media users to broadly share web URLs and content under a username, typically found via a tag (see tag).

Social Media Platform – Technologies which enable social networks, and tying services into those social networks. E.g. Facebook’s Open Graph, Twitter’s API.

Social Media Sites – Social Media sites are characterized by the sharing of information between users within a defined network. They include social networking sites like LinkedIn, Facebook, mySpace and Twitter or social bookmarking sites like, social news sites like Digg or Reddit, and other sites that are centered on user interaction. Social Media allow the initiation of conversation by either party. The size of the network is a reflection of the active participation of the audience, as consumer-generated media represents that vast majority of all content. For consumers the true value of a network is measured by the frequency of engagement of the participants. For marketers, endorsement by consumers in the form of friending/following/subscribing validates their efforts and activates a viral distribution of their brand across channels.

Social Metric – Used to measure social media engagement.

Social Network – A service created to facilitate the publication, sharing and discussion of social media. E.g. Facebook, Twitter, or Pinterest.

Soft Bounce – Email sent to an active (live) Email address but which is turned away before being delivered. Often, the problem is temporary — the server is down or the recipient’s mailbox is over quota. The Email might be held at the recipient’s server and delivered later, or the sender’s Email program may attempt to deliver it again. Soft-bounce reports are not always accurate because they don’t report all soft bounces or the actual reason for the bounce.

Solo Mailing – A one-time broadcast to an Email list, separate from regular newsletters or promotions, and often including a message from an outside Advertiser or a special promotion from the list owner.

SoLoMo – Stands for, “social, local, mobile.” Describes the trend that consumers are increasingly using local services on mobile devices, which have socially enabled services.

Spider – A search engine spider is a program that crawls the Web, visiting Webpages to collect information to add to or update a search engine’s index. The major search engines on the Web all have such a program, which is also known as a “crawler” or a “bot.”

Splash Page – A preliminary page that precedes the user-requested page of a Website; usually promotes a particular site feature or provides advertising. A splash page is timed to move on to the requested page after a short period of time or a click. Also known as an interstitial. Splash pages are not considered qualified page impressions under current industry guidelines, but they are considered qualified ad impressions. (See Interstitial Ad).

Squeeze Page – A Website page that asks you to perform one action before it takes you to the main Webpage with more options. This one action could be signing up for a newsletter, taking a short survey, or choosing between two or more languages. The purpose of a squeeze page is to get users to focus on one thing before you give them options.

Standard Ad Units – A set of ad specifications for standard image or animated in-page ad units that establish a framework for advertising inventory and Webpage design.

Stickiness – A measure used to gauge the effectiveness of a site in retaining individual users. Stickiness is usually measured by the duration of the visit.

Streaming – 1) Technology that permits continuous audio and Video delivered to a computer from a remote Website; 2) an Internet data transfer technique that allows the user to see and hear audio and Video files. The host or source compresses, then “streams” small packets of information over the Internet to the user, who can access the content as it is received.

Streaming Video – A distribution method for serving video files such that the video is played over a persistent connection between the browser and the ad server. Versions of the file at different levels of compression (quality) can be served based on detection of the user’s Internet bandwidth.

Submission Lead Time – The number of business days (non-weekend/non-holiday days) prior to a campaign going live in which a Publisher needs to validate/troubleshoot Advertiser submitted creative(s) for a campaign.

Supply Side Platform/Sell Side Platform (SSP) – An entity which facilitates the sale of a publisher’s inventory through and ad exchange. SSPs offer services such as minimum bid requirements, etc.

Syndicated Measurement Organization – Any 3rd Party organization that measures and reports audience activity on the Internet across entities in a consistent manner. Traditionally, these organizations have primarily used a sample or panel of users (or households) who are recruited and tracked using software meters or other automated techniques. Due to the use of meters, Web-site or property user identification techniques such as cookies are not necessary. A strength of these organizations is the ability to attribute audience activity to users and the known demography of users in a panel or some other user-attributed data-source. Some syndicated measurement organizations may also use a hybrid approach (for instance, measurements that result from linking census-based data with data from a sampling approach that supplies demography).


Tag – A short word or words used to describe a piece of content. E.g. a photo of the movie poster for Moneyball may be tagged with words like, “movie”, “baseball”, “Brad Pitt”.

Tagging – The process of placing a pixel on an Advertiser’s website or search landing pages to “tag” users as having visited those pages so that they can be eligible for subsequent targeting/messaging.

Textual Ad Impressions – The delivery of a text-based advertisement to a browser. To compensate for slow Internet connections, visitors may disable “auto load images” in their graphical browser. When they arrive at a page that contains an advertisement, they see a marker and the Advertiser’s message in text format in place of the graphical ad. Additionally, if a user has a text-only browser, only textual ads are delivered and recorded as textual ad impressions.

Thank-you Page – Webpage that appears after user has submitted an order or a form Online. May be a receipt.

Third-party Ad Server – Independent outsourced companies that specialize in managing, maintaining, serving, tracking, and analyzing the results of Online ad campaigns. They deliver targeted advertising that can be tailored to consumers’ declared or predicted characteristics or preferences.

Throttling – The practice of regulating how many Email messages a broadcaster sends to one ISP or mail server at a time. Some ISPs bounce Email if too many messages are received at a time from one sending address. Also refers to traffic management activities implemented by an ISP to control or even reduce traffic flow, delaying some packets in order to meet certain criteria. ‘Throttling” and “traffic shaping” are used interchangeably and are assumed to include all such traffic management activities.

Time-spent – (See Visit Duration).

Title Tag – An HTML meta tag with text describing a specific Webpage. The title tag should contain strategic keywords for the page, since many search engines pay special attention to the title text when indexing pages. The title tag should also make sense to humans, since it is usually the text link to the page displayed in search engine results.

Total Visits – Total number of browsers accessing a Website within a specific time period. Total visits should filter robotic activity, but can include visits from repeat visitors. (See Visit).

Tracking Pixel (Tags, Beacons) – A 1×1 pixel-sized transparent image that provides information about an ad’s placement. In many cases, a tracking pixel is used to notify an ad tracking system that either an ad has been served (or not served, in some cases) or that a specific Webpage has been accessed. 1×1 pixel tags on many websites that can track web surfers’ location and activities online, such as a registration or conversion. Some are powerful enough to know what a user types on a particular site. Also known as: beacon, web beacon, action tag, redirect, etc.

Trading Desk – Online ad traders plugged into a DSP or ad exchange.

Traffic Conversion – Your Website conversion rate tells you how many of your visitors are being ‘converted’ from visitors into clients, customers, leads, or subscribers. Specific communication tools are used to convert leads to subscribers and buyers. (See Conversion, Conversion Rate).

Traffic Generation – Online media communication tools that drive traffic to your Website.

Transactional Email – Also known as transactive Email. A creative format where the recipient can enter a transaction in the body of the Email itself without clicking to a Webpage first. Transactions may be answering a survey, or purchasing something.

Transitional Ad – An ad that is displayed between Webpages. In other words, the user sees an advertisement as he/she navigates between page ‘a’ and page ‘b.’ Also known as an interstitial. (See Interstitial).


Unduplicated Audience – The number of unique individuals exposed to a specified domain, page or ad in a specified time period. (See Unique User, Unique Visitor).

Unique Browser – An identified and unduplicated Cookied Browser that accesses Internet content or advertising during a measurement period. This identification procedure should use an attribution method, generally a cookie identifier, to identify the browser and establish the unduplicated nature of the audience activity during the reporting period. Included here should be an appropriate method, fully disclosed, to account for the potentially inflationary impact of cookie deletion among certain of the cookied browsers that access Internet content.

Unique Cookie – A count of unique identifiers that represents unduplicated instances of Internet activity (generally visits) to Internet content or advertising during a measurement period. Unique cookies do not generally represent unduplicated browsers, users or people accessing Internet content or advertising, due to several complexities surrounding the use of cookies and the accurate linkage of this identifier information to the browsers or users involved. Measurement of unique cookies for primary audience reach metrics by Publishers, ad servers, and those who rely on the identification of cookied browsers to measure audiences is subject to numerous challenges, notably cookie deletion. (See Cookie deletion).

Unique Device – An unduplicated computing device that is used to access Internet content or advertising during a measurement period. A count of unduplicated devices necessarily accounts for multiple browser usage on an individual computer or other computing device. It may also contribute to an understanding of the number of Unique Users, if it informs the number of multiple users who access Internet content that are attributable to a single computer or computing device.

Unique Reference Number – A unique number assigned to a list member, usually by the Email- broadcast software, and used to track member behavior (clicks, subscribes, unsubscribe) or to identify the member to track Email delivery.

Unique User/visitor – An identified and unduplicated individual Internet user who accesses Internet content or advertising during a measurement period. Census-based Publishers and Ad-servers will generally need to rely on algorithms (data models) to estimate the number of users attributable to the counts of Unique Cookies they develop. This is distinct from Syndicated Measurement Organizations that rely solely on panel tracking to derive counts of Audience Reach without the use of cookies. If the measurements include both pulled content and accessed pushed content, they should be referred to as Unique Users. If no pushed content is included, the measurement can be referred to as Unique Visitors.

Universal Ad Package (UAP) – A set of four ad units (728×90, 300×250, 160×600 and 180×150 pixels) offered by UAP-compliant publishers as a ‘package’ where ads in in these four formats are used collectively across the publisher’s site, enabling advertisers to reach more of the publisher’s audience. CUAP stands for Canadian Universal Ad Package.

User – An anonymous person who uses a Web browser to access Internet Web content.

User Centric Measurement – Web audience measurement based on the behavior of a sample (panel) of Web users.

User Generated Content (UGC) – Media that is generated by users of a site, rather than producers of a site.

User-Initiation – The willful act of a user to engage with an ad. Users may interact by clicking on the ad, and/or rolling over an ad (or a portion of an ad). When a user engages the ad using a rollover action, the user’s cursor must rest on the hotspot for at least one second before any action may be initiated in the ad. See the definition for rollover for more information.


VAST – The IAB Video Ad-Serving Template (VAST) enables a seamless exchange of Video ads across multiple Video player platforms by using a common format for Video ad responses. It enables Publishers to accept ads from multiple Advertisers, and allows Advertisers to use the same ad across multiple Publishers. VAST ads can be delivered to any VAST-compliant player without compatibility concerns.

Viral Marketing – Advertising and/or marketing techniques that “spread” like a virus by getting passed on from consumer to consumer and market to market.

Visit – A site Visit (or “session”) begins with a user-initiated “event,” or a request for content that originates from the user’s browser. Certain types of content may more likely to receive these single page visits, for instance, by accessing the site via a search engine link.

Visit Duration – When a site Visit (or “session”) begins with a request for content, this event “starts the clock” on the Time Spent measure. Each event within the session extends the Visit, and adds to the Time Spent by the user. Accounting for these one-event, “single page visits,” is important to the overall calculation of an average Time Spent measure for a site. Inactivity rules that result in the termination of a visit (as disclosed by the measurement organization) should include the time thresholds triggering the inactivity rules, as well as the amount of Time Spent to be credited. (See Visit).

Visitor – Any browser that accesses a Website within a specific time period.

Viewability – A metric used by advertisers to measure which of their ad impressions can be seen by viewers. Ads at the bottom of a page cannot be viewable unless the user scrolls down.

Volume – A control that enables users to adjust the audio output of ad creative. Volume controls should always allow adjustment down to zero (0) output.

VPAID – The Video Ad API Definition (VPAID) standardizes communication between Video players and in-stream Video ads. Working in concert with VAST, VPAID allows Video players and in-stream Video ads to remain in sync. VPAID offers Advertisers more control over rich interactive Video behavior.


Walled Gardens – Any service provider that exerts tight control over their entire ecosystem of content and media, applications, restricting access to any non-approved applications.

Web 2.0 – A term that refers to a supposed second generation of Internet-based services on the World Wide Web, especially the movement away from static Webpages. These usually include tools that let people collaborate and share information Online, such as social networking sites, wikis, communication tools, and folksonomies.

Web Applications – Web applications are software programs designed to work on one or more platforms. The term “Application” is most commonly used to describe a platform-specific program, such as a Facebook or MySpace application, which can tap into the sharing functionality or data available on a particular social network. This data includes such things as a user’s friends or location. Applications work only on the platform for which they are designed. (See Widget).

Web Beacon – A line of code which is used by a Website or third party ad server to track a user’s activity, such as a registration or conversion. A Web beacon is often invisible because it is only 1 x 1 pixel in size with no color. Also known as Web bug, 1 by 1 GIF, invisible GIF and tracker GIF. (aka tracking pixel)

Web Bug – A 1 pixel-by-1pixel image tag added to an HTMLmessage and used to track open rates by Email address. Opening the message, either in the preview pane or by clicking on it, activates the bug and sends a signal to the Website, where special software tracks and records the signal as an open. (See Web beacon).

Whitelist – Advance-authorized list of Email addresses, held by an ISP, subscriber or other Email service provider, which allows Email messages to be delivered regardless of spam filters.

Whitelist (RTB Specific) – A list of web sites that an Advertiser will permit their ads to be placed on. Websites not on this list will not be used to display ads for the Advertiser.

Win Rate – The number of impressions won over the number of impressions bid.

XML – Stands for eXtensible Markup Language. It allows Website developers to manage and manipulate data and display it dynamically.

Yield Optimization – Technique employed by Publishers to determine what their ad impressions are worth and how to manage the flow of inventory to make the most money.

Z-Index – Enumerated layers of elements and content on a Publisher’s Webpage. Consideration of the Z-element in page content design such as navigation, imagery, and ads is important for providing a seamless experience when page content overlaps. (i.e. an expanding ad with a Z- index that is less than navigational elements may give the appearance that page navigational elements are showing through the expanded portions of the ad.)

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